تحلیل فقهی کارکردهای پول‌های رمزنگاری شده (مورد مطالعه بیت کوین)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه امام صادق علیه السلام

2 دانشیار پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشه اسلامی

3 مدیرعامل هلدینگ غدیر و هیئت علمی دانشکده معارف اسلامی و مدیریت دانشگاه امام صادق(ع)

چکیده

از سال 2009 شکل نوینی از پول در عرصه اقتصاد دنیا تحت عنوان «پول رمزنگاری­شده» به وجود آمد. این وسیله مبادله از دسترس سیستم بانکی و بانک مرکزی خارج است و تنها از طریق فضای مجازی منتقل می‌شود. با فراگیرشدن این نوع پول در رفتارها و روابط اقتصادی، یک تحول جدی در ماهیت و کارکرد اقتصادی پول ایجاد می‌شود. تغییر در ماهیت و کارکرد اقتصادی ممکن است کارکرد فقهی متفاوتی نسبت به پول بانکی به دنبال داشته باشد؛ بنابراین لازم است دستگاه فقه ماهیت و کارکرد‌های اقتصادی این پدیده را با دقت شناسایی نماید و احکام مجاز و غیر مجاز به‌کارگیری آن را در روابط اقتصادی روشن کند. در پژوهش حاضر ابتدا موضوع­شناسی پول­های رمزنگاری­شده صورت پذیرفته، سپس ابعاد فقهی موضوع با دو رویکرد فقه فردی و حکومتی و همچنین در دو سطح معامله و معدن­کاوی تبیین گشته است. در آخر نیز با استفاده از روش تحقیق اجتهاد چندمرحله­ای و نظر خبرگان مالی اسلامی و مراجع عظام تقلید شروط جواز استفاده از پول­های رمزنگاری‌شده احصا گردیده است. بر این اساس یکی از انواع این پول­ها (بیت‌کوین) با شروط تطبیق داده و وجود شبهه «لا ضرر»، استفاده از آن را با اشکال فقهی روبه‌رو نموده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Jurisprudential Analysis of Cryptocurrencies' Functions - Case Study of Bitcoin

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Navabpour 1
  • ahmad ali yosefi 2
  • Mohammad Talebi 3
1 Imam Sadiq University
2 Faculty
3 Faculty of Imam Sadiq University
چکیده [English]

Money is one of the phenomena that are used in the economic life of people for a long time. Despite the simple appearance, this phenomenon is constantly evolving. Since 2009, a new form of money has been created in the world under the title "Cryptocurrency". This exchange facility is out of reach of the banking system and the central bank and is only transmitted through cyberspace.
As this kind of money becomes widespread in the economic relations of the world, there is a serious transformation in the nature and functioning of the money. Changes in the nature and function of the economy may have different jurisprudential functions than fiat money. Therefore, it is necessary to accurately identify the jurisprudence system, the nature and economic functions of this phenomenon, and clarify the types of permissible and unlawful rulings in economic relations.
In this regard, in this research, at first the cryptocurrency is introduced and then the jurisprudential aspects of the subject were explained by two approaches of individual and governmental jurisprudence, as well as in two levels of transaction and mining. Finally, using the method of multi-stage ijtihad research and the views of the Islamic finance experts and the authorities, imitating the license terms, the use Cryptocurrency has been counted. Accordingly, one of these types of money, called Bitcoin, is adapted to those circumstances and finally the existence of the doubtful of "La Darar and La Darar" has encountered it with illegal forms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cryptocurrency
  • Blockchain
  • Bitcoin
  • Digital currency
  • Virtual Currency
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